The project is designed to provide protection to induction motor, by applying voltage gradually from low to high for smooth start. Induction motor during the initial starting condition takes up much larger current than its capacity.
This leads to motor instantly catching the speed resulting in high mechanical stress and also causing some damage to the motor windings. Sometimes the windings may also get burnt. Smooth start to the induction motor is based on the SCR firing angle control principle.
This project consists of a two anti-parallel SCR’s connected in series with an induction motor to the supply. At the time of start the firing angle is heavily delayed by received delayed pulses from an operational amplifier. The op-amp operates in comparator mode which compares zero voltage pulses to develop a saw-tooth voltage.
This waveform is further compared against a varying voltage by charging and discharging of the capacitor to develop delayed pulses for triggering the SCRs. A lamp is provided in this project in place of an induction motor for demonstration purpose.
Further the project can be enhanced by using six SCRs, two connected in back to back for each phase.
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In my engineering days, we used to struggle replicating a PCB model from our text books with real tools. We had a tough time with the circuits and most of the time - they used to fail. So I wanted to solve this problem not just for myself but for all my fellow students like you. Young, energetic and knowledgeable youth who really want to learn but still cannot afford to fail with the project because it matters and the colleges rarely help us out productively.
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Q: What is soft start?
A: Soft Start means gradually increasing the supply voltage to the motor
Q: Why bulb is used instead of motor?
A: In order to visualize the soft start it is better to use a bulb
Q: Does this project have a pre-programmed microcontroller?
A: No, it is a non-microcontroller based project
Q: What is the formula for calculating smoothing capacitor value?
A: There is some approximated formula .Peak to peak ripple voltage = Load current in amps / (2*line frequency in hertz *capacitance in farads). But as rule of thumb for 1 A current 1000uF is best. Thus it is load dependent.
Q: Can we use motor instead of bulb?
A: Yes, Motor of rating ¼HP, 230V can be used.